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ip rtp firewall-traversal policy-timeout XXX isn't likely to be your problem. This is used for SIP ALG calls, examining the SDP and setting up NAT traversal parameters for the RTP voice packets. If you are experiencing one-way or no audio on voice calls using NAT through the box then this might be a factor but it won't affect anything other than SIP voice calls.
I would look towards either a spanning-tree problem or possibly a duplex mismatch. Are there errors, runts, or collisions accumulating on any interfaces? Are there multiple switches in the network with possible loops, and if so is the spanning-tree configuration consistent and stable? When there is a failure is it isolated to certain network segments or VLANs? Can you ping the affected hosts?
Are you using VLANs? Are there Cisco switches still in the mix using their proprietary ISL encapsulation?
The ISO 7-layer stack is useful as a troubleshooting tool. Start with physical (are the connectors tight, fiber clean with the right mode jumpers, etc.) and work up the stack.
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